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  • Article by Samuel de Korte
  • Published on March 30th, 2019

African American Personnel in the US Navy

At the beginning of World War 2 the U.S. Navy was segregated. Afro-Americans were exclusively admitted as kitchen workers. This article explains what this meant for the men who served and what the consequences were.

  • Article by Samuel de Korte
  • Published on July 4th, 2020

Robert Hayes and Hubert Massie, recipients of the Soldier’s Medal

During World War II, soldiers of the warring nations were distinguished for behaving heroically or for exceptional achievements. However, it was very difficult for one group to gain recognition. These were African Americans among the segregated American forces. The reason for this was that they often ended up in supporting roles and were therefore kept out of the fray or because their actions were not recognized due to racist motives. There were exceptions to this, such as Robert Hayes and Hubert Massie, who managed to stand out when an emergency occurred while they were working in Canada.